Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (GxABT)
Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (GxABT)

Travail de fin d'études: "Environmental impact assessment"

Salikandi, Mohammad ULiège
Promotor(s) : Richel, Aurore ULiège
Date of defense : 19-Jun-2023 • Permalink :
Title : Travail de fin d'études: "Environmental impact assessment"
Author : Salikandi, Mohammad ULiège
Date of defense  : 19-Jun-2023
Advisor(s) : Richel, Aurore ULiège
Committee's member(s) : Gabrielle, Benoit 
Hamelin, Lorie 
landaud, Sophie 
Language : English
Discipline(s) : Engineering, computing & technology > Chemical engineering
Institution(s) : Université de Liège, Liège, Belgique
Degree: Master : bioingénieur en chimie et bioindustries, à finalité
Faculty: Master thesis of the Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (GxABT)


[en] This research aimed to find the routes for the production of bio-phenol and make a comparison with the use of consequential life cycle assessment, to distinguish the best pathways from an environmental performance point of view. Due to the time limitation, and infancy of the technologies studied, the work still shows potential for further improvements.
Initially, different possibilities were studied to find alternatives to the petrol-based phenol. These options were categorized into lignin-first and bio-oil pathways. For each of these categories, sub-groups were found, and more specifically, RCF, AAF, and organosolv were presented as three lignin-first methods. Both for the lignin-first and bio-oil scenarios, the process flow was found through literature review and based on previous works conducted in the field. After development and assessing various possibilities, RCF and bio-oil scenarios were selected to be further studied, and to conduct the LCA for these methods. Next, the detailed process flow was identified for each, followed by the mass and energy balances for both. Biomasses were selected based on the previous works, which are birch, willow, and poplar. LCI was done and needed information were gathered and completed so that the impact assessment could be done. After completion of the process development and LCI step, the modelling was done through activity browser. Six impact categories were studied including: Global Warming Potential (GW100), eutrophication: marine, eutrophication: fresh water, land use, water use, and particulate matter. For all these impact categories, the results are presented for all the biomasses.
Among the 6 impact categories studied here, Biomass cultivation and RCF reaction were the ones that appeared as the main contributors three and two times, respectively. Based on table3, these two steps are considered as the hot spots of the process, and further works can be done to improve their environmental impacts. RCF reaction is still not very well-developed and thus, further research and studies are needed to make the process more efficient and less polluting.
One of the key conclusions from this work is that (as shown in the result), there is no meaningful difference from an environmental performance point of view between birch, poplar, and willow when they are used as the raw material for RCF process.



Access Mohammad Salikandi- Master's Thesis.pdf
Description: Consequential Life-Cycle Assessment (CLCA) of Bio-Based Phenol : comparison of different scenarios
Size: 1.15 MB
Format: Adobe PDF
Access Erratum_Mohammad Salikandi- Master's Thesis.pdf
Description: -
Size: 1.21 MB
Format: Adobe PDF


Access SI. Table1. Literature on Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins.xlsx
Description: SI. Table1. Literature on Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins
Size: 19.16 kB
Format: Microsoft Excel XML
Access SI. Table2. SI. Table2. LCI for the RCF case study.xlsx
Description: SI. Table2. SI. Table2. LCI for the RCF case study
Size: 97.24 kB
Format: Microsoft Excel XML
Access SI. Table3. LCI for bio-oil case .xlsx
Description: SI. Table3. LCI for bio-oil case
Size: 76.66 kB
Format: Microsoft Excel XML
Access SI. Table4. Final LCA Result.xlsx
Description: SI. Table4. Final LCA Result
Size: 99.9 kB
Format: Microsoft Excel XML


  • Salikandi, Mohammad ULiège Université de Liège > Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech


Committee's member(s)

  • Gabrielle, Benoit
  • Hamelin, Lorie
  • landaud, Sophie
  • Total number of views 36
  • Total number of downloads 47

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